Jian Liu, Xuecui Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Menglong Wu, Xinyue Wang, RongFan, Fei Zhang, Junjun Yan, Yanjun Liu, Delin Zhang, Ping Yin, JunjieYan
In plant leaves, starch is composed of glucan polymers that accumulate in chloroplasts as the products of photosynthesis during the day; starch is mobilized at night to continuously provide sugars to sustain plant growth and development. Efficient starch degradation requires the involvement of several enzymes, including β-amylase and glucan phosphatase. However, how these enzymes cooperate remains largely unclear. Here, we show that the glucan phosphatase LIKE SEX FOUR 1 (LSF1) interacts with plastid NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) to recruit β-amylase (BAM1), thus reconstituting the BAM1–LSF1–MDH complex. The starch hydrolysis activity of BAM1 drastically increased in the presence of LSF1–MDHin vitro. We determined the structure of the BAM1–LSF1–MDH complex by a combination of cryo-electron microscopy, crosslinking mass spectrometry, and molecular docking. The starch-binding domain of the dual-specificity phosphatase (DSP) and carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of LSF1 were docked in proximity to BAM1, thus facilitating BAM1 access to and hydrolysis of the polyglucans of starch, thus revealing the molecular mechanism by which the LSF1–MDH complex improves the starch degradation activity of BAM1. Moreover, LSF1 is phosphatase-inactive, and the enzymatic activity of MDH was dispensable for starch degradation, suggesting non-enzymatic scaffold functions for LSF1–MDH in starch degradation. These findings provide important insights into the precise regulation of starch degradation.