Yuexuan Long, Jonathan F. Wendel, Xianlong Zhang, Maojun Wang
Trends in Plant Science, Published: December 06, 2023, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2023.11.009
Development of complex traits necessitates the functioning and coordination of intricate regulatory networks involving multiple genes. Understanding 3D chromatin structure can facilitate insight into the regulation of gene expression by regulatory elements. This potential, of visualizing the role of chromatin organization in the evolution and function of regulatory elements, remains largely unexplored. Here, we describe new perspectives that arise from the dual considerations of sequence variation of regulatory elements and chromatin structure, with a special focus on whole-genome doubling or polyploidy. We underscore the significance of hierarchical chromatin organization in gene regulation during evolution. In addition, we describe strategies for exploring chromatin organization in future investigations of regulatory evolution in plants, enabling insights into the evolutionary influence of regulatory elements on gene expression and, hence, phenotypes.
Keyword: regulatory element; topologically associating domain; chromatin interaction; comparative evolution; polyploidy