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【Nature Plants】Lysine acetylation of the histone acetyltransferase adaptor protein ADA2 is a mechanism of metabolic control of chromatin modification in plants
来源: 时间:2024-02-23

Yue Yu, Feng Zhao, Yaping Yue, Yu Zhao, Dao-Xiu Zhou

Nature Plants (2024), Published:07 February 2024


Histone acetylation is a predominant active chromatin mark deposited by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that transfer the acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to lysine ε-amino groups in histones. GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSED PROTEIN 5 (GCN5) is one of the best-characterized HATs and functions in association with several adaptor proteins such as ADA2 within multiprotein HAT complexes. ADA2–GCN5 interaction increases GCN5 binding to acetyl-CoA and stimulates its HAT activity. It remains unclear whether the HAT activity of GCN5 (which acetylates not only histones but also cellular proteins) is regulated by acetyl-CoA levels, which vary greatly in cells under different metabolic and nutrition conditions. Here we show that the ADA2 protein itself is acetylated by GCN5 in rice cells. Lysine acetylation exposes ADA2 to a specific E3 ubiquitin ligase and reduces its protein stability. In rice plants, ADA2 protein accumulation reversely parallels its lysine acetylation and acetyl-CoA levels, both of which are dynamically regulated under varying growth conditions. Stress-induced ADA2 accumulation could stimulate GCN5 HAT activity to compensate for the reduced acetyl-CoA levels for histone acetylation. These results indicate that ADA2 lysine acetylation that senses cellular acetyl-CoA variations is a mechanism to regulate HAT activity and histone acetylation homeostasis in plants under changing environments.